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Course directors:

Dr Nurit Zosmer, associate specialist in fetal medicine and gynaecology, King’s College Hospital, London, UK
Pr Eric Jauniaux, professor in obstetrics and fetal medicine, EGA Institute for Women Health, University College London, UK
Dr Nobuhiko Hayashi, specialist in fetal medicine, Chiba Aoba Municipal Hospital, Chiba, Japan


  1. Wu S, Kocherginsky M, Hibbard JU. Abnormal placentation: twenty-year analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:1458–61.
  2. Silver RM, Landon MB, Rouse DJ, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, Thom EA et al. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:1226–32.
  3. Jauniaux E, Jurkovic D. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease. Placenta 2012;33:244-51.
  4. Jauniaux E, Collins SL, Jurkovic D, Burton GJ. Accreta placentation. A systematic review of prenatal ultrasound imaging and grading of villous invasiveness. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016;215:712-21.
  5. Alfirevic Z, Tang A-W, Collins SL, Robson SC, Palacios-Jaraquemadas, on behalf of the Ad-hoc International AIP Expert group. Pro forma for ultrasound reporting in suspected abnormally invasive placenta (AIP); an international consensus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;47:276-278.
  6. Collins SL, Ashcroft A, Braun T, Calda P, Langhoff-Ross J, Morel O et al. Proposed for standardized ultrasound descriptions of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;47:271-275.
  7. Jauniaux E, Bhide A, Burton GJ. Pathophysiology of accreta. In: Silver, R. ed. Placenta accreta syndrome. Portland: CRC Press; 2017:13–28.
  8. Jauniaux E, Bhide A. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and outcome of placenta previa accreta after caesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017;217:27-36.
  9. Jauniaux E, Bhide A, Kennedy A, Woodward P, Hubinont C, Collins S; FIGO Placenta Accreta Diagnosis and Management Expert Consensus Panel. FIGO consensus guidelines on placenta accreta spectrum disorders: Prenatal diagnosis and screening. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2018;140:274-280.
  10. Jauniaux E, Collins SL, Burton GJ. Placenta accreta spectrum: Pathophysiology and evidence-based anatomy for prenatal ultrasound imaging. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018;218:75-87.
  11. Zosmer N, Jauniaux E, Bunce C, Panaiotova J, Shaikh H, Nicholaides KH. Interobserver agreement on standardized ultrasound and histopathologic signs for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum disorders. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2018;140:326-31.
  12. Zosmer N, Fuller J, Shaikh H, Johns J, Ross JA. Natural history of early first-trimester pregnancies implanted in Cesarean scars. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2015;46:367–375.
  13. Panaiotova J, Tokinaka M, Krajewska Km, Zosmer N, Nicolaides KH. Screening for morbid adherent placenta in early pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019;53:101-106.